The Matabal people were the first known inhabitants of the region. 200 years later, they were replaced by the Zulu people, who were soon forced to struggle with other bumblebees, the founders of Pretoria. The city was soon conquered by the British.



One of the events that led to the founding of the Pretoria was the Battle of the River Blood, worn in 1838 between 10,000 Zulu fighters and 470 buried soldiers.

The latter, who were traveling in wagons, placed them forming a defensive perimeter behind which they rejected the Zulu lancers. Due to firearms and a single cannon, the bulls gained an overwhelming victory: about 3,000 Zulu fighters were killed, while the bulls had only three injured.


  • PretoriaBuy English – Pretoria
  • Country – Republic of South Africa
  • Provincia – Gauteng
  • Surface – 1644 sq. Km
  • Population – 1,725,000 inhabitants
  • Founded – 1855

Loftus Versfeld is a Pretoria football and rugby stadium. It was opened in 1923, after the completion of the initial tribune, which had a capacity of 2,000 spectators.

The current structure is the result of transformations made over time – the most recent took place before the 2010 World Cup.

The stadium’s sound system, illumination and scoreboard have been upgraded.Five years before the World Cup, there have been played matches of the rugby world championship here.

In addition to sports competitions, the stadium also hosts musical events. The most outstanding concerts that took place here are Robbie Williams’s 2006 (56,000 persona present) and Celine Dion in 2008 (80,000 spectators)

Did you know?
In 2005, the municipal government changed the name of the city to Tshwane, in honor of a tribal chief who lived in the region before the arrival of the bulls.

The new name, although approved by the South African Geographical Designation Council, is not official because it was not approved by the South African government.


The burial pioneers who founded Pretoria are commemorated by the Voortrekker Monument – a huge granite structure built between 1937 and 1949. The building has a length, width and height of 40 m. It is at the top of a high hill and is visible almost anywhere in the city .

The most important element of the monument is an interior cenotaph. The funeral stone was built so that every year on December 16 (the anniversary of the Battle of the Sangel River), it is lit by the sun’s rays that penetrate through an opening of the structure.

Did you know?
The city was named after its founder, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, who wished to commemorate his father, Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (1789 – 1853), the victorious commander of the Battle of Raul Sangelui, and the founder of Transvaal and Natalia


Four forts were built to protect Pretoria during the Second Bull War. Three are pentagon-shaped. They had similar German fortifications and allowed more firing positions than conventional forts.

The Forces proved to be useless – most of the bulls fought on the front line and only the small garrisons remained in the city (some of them were guarded by one man). The British conquered Pretoria without a fight.


The city gave the name Pax Pretoriana, which refers to the country’s foreign policy towards the African states. The term also describes the relative stability of South Africa and the nation’s dominant position in the region.

During Apartheid, Pax Pretoriana had a negative connotation because of South Africa’s aggressive external policies. Today, it refers to the role of the republic in initiating positive economic and political changes in the region.


Pretoria is one of the largest economic, educational and cultural centers in the Republic of South Africa.

The most developed industries are metalworking, vehicle assembly, machinery manufacturing, chemicals, food processing (sugar and tobacco), textiles, tobacco, glass manufacturing and printing. There are factories in the city for repairing wagons.

Many people are employed in government institutions. Pretoria is also an important land and air hub.


Pretoria has an intermediate tropical climate. The summers are long and hot, and the short, cold, dry winters. Despite the high altitude, the temperatures are relatively high.
January, the warmest month of the year, has average temperatures during the night and 18 and 29 degrees Celsius.

Average temperatures in June, the coldest month, are 5 and 19 degrees Celsius.The maximum and minimum recorded in the city are 36 and -6 degrees Celsius.
Average annual rainfall is 674 mm.


The headquarters of the South African Government and the country’s president are located in the Union Buildings complex, built between 1910 and 13 at the highest point in the city, on Meintjieskop Hill, a little further from the center of Pretoria.

One of the most important events in the history of the complex was the investment of President Nelson Mandela after the first democratic elections in 1994.

Union buildings occupy an area of ​​285 m in length, 100 m in width and 60 m in height. They were built of local limestone tiles and were designed by Herbert Baker.

The complex has a semi-circular shape linked by two wings, symbolizing the union of the nations that formed the country. The lower floors of the buildings are made in the Edwardian English style, while the upper floors are an example of the Cape Dutch art, which takes us to the homes of Amsterdam.

The President’s offices are located on the left side of the complex. Its presence is signaled by flagging the national flag.


  • National Zoological Garden in South Africa founded at the end of the 19th century. XIX. The zoo occupies 8 ha. Half of it is located on a flat land and half a mile above a hill whose peak can only be reached by cable car. The main attractions of the zoo include a reptile park, an aquarium, a section dedicated to primates and the Australian ecosystem, where koala bears can be seen.
  • Transvaal Museum, a museum of natural history founded in 1892, initially as a municipal museum. His collections include Pleistocene hominid fossils and Permian fossil fossils.
  • Kruger House – Residence of a former bull president. The building built in 1884 was designed by Tom Claridge. The cement available at that time was of such a poor quality that milk was used instead of water to mix it. It was one of the first electricity buildings in Pretoria.


1600 – the first settlements founded by the Matabele people;
1832 – the Zulu people take control of the region;
1838 – Battle of Raul Sangelui;
1852 – The Republic of Transvaal declares its independence;
1855 – the city is buried;
1860 – Pretoria is declared the capital of Transvaal;
1866 – discovery of gold deposits; Rapid growth of the city;
1899 – 1902 – The Second Bull War; The city is captured by the British;
1931 – Pretoria receives official civic rights;
1961 – Pretoria becomes the seat of the South African government;
2005 – the city is renamed Tshwane;
2010 – Pretoria hosts the 2010 World Cup.